The warming from the Sun is cyclical, it's NOT constant. The distance of where you are from the Sun is constantly changing because both the Earth's orbit around the Sun is irregular and the Sun itself wobbles due to the combined gravitational pull of all the planets together. Look at the Schwabe solar cycle of 11 years, the Jose solar cycle of solar Inertial Motion of 179 years, Eddy Solar Cycle of 1000 years, the Bray-Halstatt Cycles of 2300-2500 years, then look into the three Milankovitch Cycles. Short to medium term climate change: See Harmonics of the Solar Sytems Research 4th August 2022; CLICK HERE or see below

Solar Inertial Motion: the combined mass of the planets also moves both the position of the Sun and its activity through their combined gravitational pull, meaning the Sun moves around following the ever moving barycentre of the Solar system rather than being in a fixed central point in the middle Solar System. That is the key thing to understand: the Sun is moving around, wobbling in spiral like motion as it travels, it is not stationary. Once you understand that all medium term climate change can be explained simply because of the Sun's changing distance from the Earth.

None of this has anything to do with humans. None of this has anything to do with CO2. The models of the Solar System you grew up believing as a child were gross over simplifications. They conditioned you to believe that the Solar system has a fixed Sun position with a regular Sun activity with regular orbits, of which the Earth is one. Yet that is not the reality: not only the earth both tilts and wobbles as it orbits, but the orbit is a changing ellipse not a perfect circle, meaning the distance from the Sun is not constant.

These are the three Milankovitch cycles. Also other planets have irregular orbits. The combined effect of all these irregular orbits together pulls the Sun off centre of the solar system into the barycentre. A wobbling Sun is the real reason for short to medium term climate change, and an irregular earth orbit, tilt and wobble is the reason for long term climate change. And this is just the beginning of the story of irregularity in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, then there are cycles of Sun activity, making it stronger and weaker according to how close to the 11 year cycle of magnetic poles flip it is, next being in 2024, and how many Sun spots & Solar flares we are exposed to.

Then you need to factor volcanic activity, the Hunga-Tonga Hunga underwater volcanic eruption of January 2022 increased the water vapour in the stratosphere by 10%, this in itself will cause considerable warming of the planet in most regions. It's definitely not a simplistic neat black and white story of CO2, a minor greenhouse gas, as 95% of the earth's greenhouse gases are constituted by water vapour instead. 

Humans have no power to determine either the orbit of the Earth around the Sun or the Sun's internal & external activity, or the water vapour in the atmosphere. Life adapts much more easily to higher temperatures and increases in CO2, particularly plants, vegetation, trees, plankton& phytoplankton, than it does to decreases in CO2. The real danger is a decrease of CO2, and a decrease in temperature, not an increase in either.

Once again, we have been deceived by a systematically corrupt scientific funding system linked to oligarchs interests.CO2 was always a control knob for economic prosperity, not climate. 

Press Release The Planetary Science Institute:

Ilustration of the uncertainty of Earth's orbit 56 million years ago due to a potential past passage of the Sun-like star HD7977 2.8 million years ago. Each point's distance from the center corresponds to the degree of ellipticity of Earth's orbit, and the angle corresponds to the direction pointing to Earth's perihelion, or closest approach distance to the Sun. 100 different simulations (each with a unique color) are sampled every 1,000 years for 600,000 years to construct this figure. Every simulation is consistent with the modern Solar System's conditions, and the differences in orbital predictions are primarily due to orbital chaos and the past encounter with HD 7977.

Earth's orbit 56 million years agoCredit: N. Kaib/PSI.Feb. 14, 2024, Tucson, Arizona. – Stars that pass by our Solar System have altered the long-term orbital evolution of planets, including Earth, and by extension modified our climate. “Perturbations – a minor deviation in the course of a celestial body, caused by the gravitational attraction of a neighboring body – from passing stars alter the long-term orbital evolution of the Sun’s planets, including Earth,” said Nathan A. Kaib, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute and lead author of “Passing Stars as an Important Driver of Paleoclimate and the Solar System’s Orbital Evolution” that appears in Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Sean Raymond at the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux also contributed to this work. “One reason this is important is because the geologic record shows that changes in the Earth’s orbital eccentricity accompany fluctuations in the Earth’s climate. If we want to best search for the causes of ancient climate anomalies, it is important to have an idea of what Earth’s orbit looked like during those episodes,” Kaib said.

“One example of such an episode is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum 56 million years ago, where the Earth’s temperature rose 5-8 degrees centigrade. It has already been proposed that Earth’s orbital eccentricity was notably high during this event, but our results show that passing stars make detailed predictions of Earth’s past orbital evolution at this time highly uncertain, and a broader spectrum of orbital behavior is possible than previously thought.”

Simulations (run backwards) are used to predict the past orbital evolution of the Earth and the Sun’s other planets. Analogous to weather forecasting, this technique gets less accurate as you extend it to longer times because of the exponential growth of uncertainties. Previously, the effects of stars passing near the Sun were not considered in these “backwards forecasts.

”As the Sun and other stars orbit the center of the Milky Way, they inevitably can pass near one another, sometimes within tens of thousands of au, 1 au being the distance from the Earth to the Sun. These events are called stellar encounters. For instance, a star passes within 50,000 au of the Sun every 1 million years on average, and a star passes within 10,000 au of the Sun every 20 million years on average". This study’s simulations include these types of events, whereas most prior similar simulations do not.

One major reason the Earth’s orbital eccentricity fluctuates over time is because it receives regular perturbations from the giant planets of our Solar System, (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). As stars pass near our Solar System, they perturb the giant planet’s orbits, which consequently then alters the orbital trajectory of the Earth. Thus, the giant planets serve as a link between the Earth and passing stars.

Kaib said that when simulations include stellar passages, we find that orbital uncertainties grow even faster, and the time horizon beyond which these backwards simulations’ predictions become unreliable is more recent than thought.

This means two things:

  • There are past epochs in Earth’s history where our confidence in what Earth’s orbit looked like (for example, its eccentricity, or degree of circularity) has been too high, and the real orbital state is not known, and
  • the effects of passing stars make regimes of orbital evolution (extended periods of particularly high or low eccentricity) possible that were not predicted by past models.

“Given these results, we have also identified one known recent stellar passage, the Sun-like star HD 7977 which occurred 2.8 million years ago, that is potentially powerful enough to alter simulations’ predictions of what Earth’s orbit was like beyond approximately 50 million years ago,”

Kaib said.The current observational uncertainty of HD 7977’s closest encounter distance is large, however, ranging from 4,000 au to 31,000 au. “For larger encounter distances, HD 7977 would not have a significant impact on Earth’s encounter distance. Near the smaller end of the range, however, it would likely alter our predictions of Earth’s past orbit, ” Kaib said.

Visit to see a video on how Star HD 7977 can alter Earth’s orbit.Kaib’s work was funded by a grant to PSI from NSF CAREER Award 2405121.

 Alan Fischer
Public Information Officer
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 Nathan A. Kaib
Senior Scientist
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THE PLANETARY SCIENCE INSTITUTE: The Planetary Science Institute is a private, nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation dedicated to Solar System exploration. It is headquartered in Tucson, Arizona, where it was founded in 1972. PSI scientists are involved in numerous NASA and international missions, the study of Mars and other planets, the Moon, asteroids, comets, interplanetary dust, impact physics, the origin of the Solar System, extra-solar planet formation, dynamics, the rise of life, and other areas of research. They conduct fieldwork on all continents around the world. They also are actively involved in science education and public outreach through school programs, children’s books, popular science books and art.PSI scientists are based in 34 states and the District of Columbia.


Reviewing the many planetary harmonics and the orbital invariant inequalities that characterize the planetary motions of the solar system from the monthly to the millennial time scales, we show that they are not randomly distributed but clearly tend to cluster around some specific values that also match those of the main solar activity cycles. In some cases, planetary models have even been able to predict the time-phase of the solar oscillations including the Schwabe 11-year sunspot cycle.

We also stress that solar models based on the hypothesis that solar activity is regulated by its internal dynamics alone have never been able to reproduce the variety of the observed cycles.

Although planetary tidal forces are weak, we review a number of mechanisms that could explain how the solar structure and the solar dynamo could get tuned to the planetary motions. In particular, we discuss how the effects of the weak tidal forces could be significantly amplified in the solar core by an induced increase in the H-burning.

Mechanisms modulating the electromagnetic and gravitational large-scale structure of the planetary system are also discussed.

11 Conclusion

See Full Research Article CLICK HERE:

Many empirical evidences suggest that planetary systems can self-organize in synchronized structures although some of the physical mechanisms involved are still debated. We have shown that the high synchronization of our own planetary system is nicely revealed by the fact that the ratios of the orbital radii of adjacent planets, when raised to the 2/3rd power, express the simple ratios found in harmonic musical consonances while those of the mirrored ones follow the simple, elegant, and highly precise scaling-mirror symmetry Eq. 1 (Bank and Scafetta, 2022).

The solar system is made of synchronized coupled oscillators because it is characterized by a set of frequencies that are linked to each other by the harmonic Eq. 3, which are easily detected in the solar wobbling. Thus, it is then reasonable to hypothesize that the solar activity could be also tuned to planetary frequencies. We corroborated this hypothesis by reviewing the many planetary harmonics and orbital invariant inequalities that characterize the planetary motions and observing that often their frequencies correspond to those of solar variability.

It may be objected that, since the identified planetary frequencies are so numerous, it could be easy to occasionally find that some of them roughly correspond to those of the solar cycles. However, the fact is that the planetary frequencies of the solar system, from the monthly to the millennial time scales, are not randomly distributed but tend to cluster around some specific values that quite well match those of the main solar activity cycles.

Thus, it is rather unlikely that the results shown in Figures 2–6 are just occasional. In some cases, our proposed planetary models have even been able to predict the time-phase of the solar oscillations like that of the Schwabe 11-year sunspot cycle throughout the last three centuries, as well as those of the secular and millennial modulations throughout the Holocene. The two main planetary models that could explain the Schwabe 11-year cycle and its secular and millennial variation involve the planets Venus, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, as it was initially suggested by Wolf (1859).

We further suggest that the Venus-Earth-Jupiter model and the Jupiter-Saturn model could be working complementary to each other. The alternative hypothesis that the solar activity is regulated by an unforced internal dynamics alone (i.e. by an externally unperturbed solar dynamo) has never been able to reproduce the variety of the observed oscillations. In fact, standard MHD dynamo models are not self-consistent and do not even directly explain the well-known 11-year solar cycle nor they are able to predict its timing without assuming a number of calibrated parameters (Tobias, 2002; Jiang et al., 2007).

There have been several objections to a planetary theory of solar variability. For example, Smythe and Eddy (1977) claimed that planetary cycles and conjunctions could not predict the timing of grand solar minima like the Maunder Minimum of the 17th century. However, Scafetta (2012a) developed a solar-planetary model able to predict all the grand solar maxima and minima of the last millennium (Figure 4).

Other authors reasonably claimed that planetary gravitational tides are too weak to modulate solar activity (Charbonneau, 2002; de Jager and Versteegh, 2005; Charbonneau, 2022); yet, several empirical evidences support the importance of their role (Wolff and Patrone, 2010; Abreu et al., 2012; Scafetta, 2012b; Stefani et al., 2016, 2019). Stefani et al. (2016, 2021) proposed that the Sun could be at least synchronized by the tides of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, producing an 11.07-year cycle that reasonably matches the Schwabe cycle. Longer cycles could be produced by a dynamo excited by angular momentum transfer from Jupiter and Saturn.

Instead, Scafetta (2012b) proposed that, in the solar core, the effects of the weak tidal forces could be amplified one million times or more due to an induced increase in the H-burning, thus providing a sufficiently strong forcing to synchronize and modulate the solar dynamo with planetary harmonics at multiple time scales.

Objections to the latter hypothesis, based on the slow light propagation inside the radiative zone according to the Kelvin–Helmholtz timescale (Mitalas and Sills, 1992; Stix, 2003), could be probably solved. In fact, tidal forces are believed to favor the onset of g-waves moving back and forth throughout the radiative region of the Sun (Barker and Ogilvie, 2010; Ahuir et al., 2021). Thus, g-waves themselves could be amplified and modulated in the core by the tidally induced H-burning enhancement (Scafetta, 2012b). Then, both tidal torques and g-waves could cyclically affect the tachocline region at the bottom of the convective zone and synchronize the solar dynamo.Alternatively, planetary alignments can also modify the large-scale electromagnetic and gravitational structure of the planetary system altering the space weather in the solar system.

For example, in coincidence of planetary alignments, an increase of solar flares has been observed (Hung, 2007; Bertolucci et al., 2017; Petrakou, 2021). The solar wobbling, which reflects the motion of the barycenter of the planets, changing from more regular to more chaotic trajectories, correlates well with some long climate cycles like the Bray-Hallstatt cycle (2100–2500 years) (Charvátová, 2000; Charvátová and Hejda, 2014; Scafetta et al., 2016).

Finally, Scafetta et al. (2020) showed that the infalling meteorite flux on the Earth presents a 60-year oscillation coherent with the variation of the eccentricity of Jupiter’s orbit induced by Saturn. The falling flux of meteorites and interplanetary dust would then contribute to modulate cloud formation.

In conclusion, many empirical evidences suggest that planetary oscillations should be able to modulate the solar activity and even the Earth’s climate, although several open physical issues remain open. These results stress the importance of identifying the relevant planetary harmonics, the solar activity cycles and the climate oscillations as phenomena that, in many cases, are interconnected.

This approach could be useful to predict both solar and climate variability using harmonic constituent models as it is currently done for oceanic tides. We think that the theory of a planetary modulation of solar activity should be further developed because no clear alternative theory exists to date capable to explain the observed planetary-solar interconnected periodicities.Conflict of InterestThe authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.